All articles

"Articles" section provides a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of otolaryngology.
  • Laryngomalacia - clinical features, surgical and medical management

    Laryngomalacia also called as "discoordinate pharyngo-laryngomalacia" is the most common congenital lesion of larynx (60-70%) and is the most common cause of congenital stridor in neonates and infants.
    The condition is characterized by partial or...

  • Noise Induced Hearing loss (NIHL)

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is defined as reduction in auditory acuity (hearing ability) associated with long term exposure to loud sounds. It is the second most common form of sensorineural hearing deficit, after presbycusis (age-related...

  • Total Laryngectomy - Indications, Contraindications, Surgical steps and Complications

    Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure in which the entire larynx is removed by resecting the trachea and bringing out the lower stump as a respiratory opening in the anterior part of the neck (permanent tracheostomy) and thereby closing off the...

  • Thyroglossal cyst - Pathogenesis, Clinical features and Treatment options

    Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) is a frequent congenital midline anomaly of the neck which usually manifests during the first decade of life. TDC is an epithelial lined tract that connects the tongue to the thyroid gland.

  • TNM Staging of Lip and Oral Cavity cancers - AJCC 8th Edition

    The recently released 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, Head and Neck Section, introduces significant modifications from the prior 7th edition.
    In the T category, T4a and T4b are added. T4a is moderately...

  • TNM AJCC Staging of Head & Neck Cancers

    Staging of cancer refers to classification of cancer by its anatomic disease extent, i.e, how large the tumor is, and if it has spread.
    This staging system of cancer helps

    to express severity or extend of disease
    to estimate the...

  • Clinical practice guidelines for tonsillectomy

    Tonsillectomy is the second most commonly performed surgery in United States with more than 5,30,000 procedures performed on children younger than 15 years each year.
    Although tonsillectomy is a routine procedure performed by general and...

  • Staging systems for Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is an uncommon, slow growing, benign but locally invasive vascular tumor arising from tissues in the sphenopalatine foramen inside nasal cavity. JNAs are also reported to arise from posterior aspect of...

  • Ranula - Clinical presentation, diagnosis and management

    Ranula is an uncommon clinical condition characterised by a translucent, blue cystic swelling in the floor of the mouth, arising due to accumulation of extravasated mucus from the sublingual salivary glands.
    The term ranula arised from...

  • Clinical Practice Guidelines for management of Dysphonia

    Dysphonia or impaired voice production is a clinical condition characterised by altered vocal quality, pitch, loudness, or vocal effort that impairs communication and/or quality of life. 
    This is a very common complaint affecting nearly...

  • Incomplete Cochlear Partition Type I

    Inner ear malformations (IEM) represent about 20%–35% of the etiology of congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL).
    Incomplete cochlear partition anomalies characterize a group of IEM with normal cochlear location, external dimensions...

  • Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VI) is the inability to temporarily close the connection between nasopharynx and oropharynx, due to an anatomical dysfunction in soft palate (velum), lateral pharyngeal wall or posterior pharyngeal wall. This can be due...

  • Shamblin classification of carotid body tumors

    Carotid body tumour, also known as a chemodectoma or carotid body paraganglioma, are highly vascular tumors arising from the paraganglion cells of the carotid body. These tumors are located at the site...

  • Carotid Body Tumors / Chemodectoma

    Carotid body tumour, also known as carotid body paraganglioma or chemodectoma, is a highly vascular tumour, arising from chromaffin (paraganglion) cells of the extra-adrenal tissues in the carotid body.

  • Calcific prevertebral tendinitis

    Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis also known as calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis or prevertebral calcific tendinitis is a self limiting clinical condition due to calcification and inflammation of longus colli muscle and...

  • Revised Bethesda system for thyroid malignancies

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is corner stone investigation done in the evaluation of thyroid lesion. It is a simple, safe, quick and cost effective outpatient procedure.
    FNAC has got a high degree of diagnostic accuracy (85-100%) and a...

  • Tubercle of Zuckerkandl

    Zuckerkandl Tubercle (ZT) is the posterior projection of lateral lobes of the thyroid gland and is a common anatomical structure observed in 60-90% of cases.

  • Patulous eustachian tube

    Patulous eustachian tube also known as patent Eustachian tube (PET) is a rare physiological disorder of the eustachian tube, in which a normally closed Eustachian tube stays open intermittently.
    PET was first described by Schwartze 1864 when he...

  • Diphtheria

    Diphtheria is a life threatening acute bacterial infectious condition caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The usual site of infection is the tonsils and oropharynx, but the disease can occur in nasal cavities, larynx or the skin...

  • Treatment of allergic rhinitis in pregnancy

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects 20-30% of women in the child bearing age group with an annually increasing prevalence.  The classical clinical symptoms include sneezing, itching, nasal blockage and nasal discharge. In patients who had allergic...