Histopathological Variants of Papillary Carcinoma Thyroid

Papillary carcinoma thyroid (PTC) is the most common differentiated malignancy of thyroid gland. Depending on the different histopathological patterns, cell types and clinical features different variants of papillary carcinoma thyroid have been described. Knowing the variants of papillary carcinoma thyroid can help in predicting the aggressive biological course and prognosis of the disease. This, in […]

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancers

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT); also called Induction chemotherapy is a treatment option in cancer therapy, in which chemotherapy is given prior to the definitive treatment like surgery or radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cancer treatment can reduce the tumor volume, improve organ function prior to definitive treatment, permits more effective and less toxic local therapy. Giving NACT […]

Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL) – Clinical presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment

Sudden hearing loss (SHL) is an emergency clinical condition characterized by a rapid-onset subjective sensation of hearing impairment in one or both ears. When not recognized and managed promptly, sudden hearing loss may result in persistent hearing loss and tinnitus and reduced patient quality of life. The National Institute for Deafness and Communication Disorders (NICDC)  […]

Sudden Hearing Loss: Updated Clinical Practice Guideline

Sudden hearing loss (SHL), defined as a rapid-onset subjective sensation of hearing impairment in one or both ears is an emergency in the ear-nose-throat clinical practice. If not recognized and managed promptly, sudden hearing loss may result in persistent hearing loss and tinnitus and reduced patient quality of life. The disease affects 5 to 27 […]

Malignant Otitis Externa – Clinical presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment

Malignant otitis externa (MOE) is an aggressive and potentially life-threatening infection of the soft tissues of the external ear and its surrounding structures, which quickly spreads to involve periosteum and bone of the skull base. The most common causative organism of malignant otitis externa is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Though this is not a neoplastic disease, it’s […]

Compartment Surgery in Oral Cancers

Main modality of treatment for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is surgery. Patients with advanced risk factors like margin positivity, perineural invasion, advanced disease, etc need postoperative radiotherapy. Significant advances in terms of oncologic treatment (lasers, robotics) and outcomes have happened in the last three decades. But irrespective of these advancements 5‐year overall survival hasn’t […]

Tracheoesophageal Prosthesis (TEP Speech)

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure, most commonly done in cancers of the larynx (voice box). In this procedure, the entire voice box is taken off and a permanent hole (tracheostomy/stoma) is created in the neck, through which the patient respires for his entire life. The indications, contraindications, surgical steps of laryngectomy are discussed separately […]

Temporal bone cancer staging systems

Staging of cancers is essential for patient counselling, treatment planning, predict treatment outcome and survival. Most commonly followed staging system for head and neck malignancies is the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM staging system) by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Because of the relative rarity of temporal bone cancers, a universally accepted temporal bone […]

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR) scoring systems

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) can be defined as chronic irritation of larynx caused by the abnormal retrograde flow of gastric contents into the upper airway, mostly due to upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction. Studies have found that upto 50% of laryngeal complaints that present in the otolaryngeal clinics are associated with LPR. LPR is suspected in cases […]

Does my child need tonsillectomy? – Indications for pediatric tonsillectomy

Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure performed with or without adenoidectomy that completely removes the tonsil, including its capsule, by dissecting the peritonsillar space between the tonsil capsule and the muscular wall. Tonsillectomy is the second-most common ambulatory surgical procedure (first being myringotomy with insertion of tubes) performed on children in the United States. In the […]