Articles

“Articles” section provides a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of otolaryngology.

Temporal bone cancer staging systems

Staging of cancers is essential for patient counseling, treatment planning, predict treatment outcome and survival. Most commonly followed staging system for head and neck malignancies is the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM staging system) by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Because of the relative rarity of temporal bone cancers, a universally accepted temporal bone

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Scoring Systems

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) can be defined as chronic irritation of larynx caused by the abnormal backflow of gastric contents into the upper airway, mostly due to upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction. Studies have found that up to 50% of laryngeal complaints that present in the otolaryngeal clinics are associated with LPR. LPR is suspected in cases

Does my child need tonsillectomy? – Indications for pediatric tonsillectomy

Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure performed with or without adenoidectomy that completely removes the tonsil, including its capsule, by dissecting the peritonsillar space between the tonsil capsule and the muscular wall. Tonsillectomy is the second-most common ambulatory surgical procedure (first being myringotomy with insertion of tubes) performed on children in the United States. In the

Laryngeal Exposure (Opening) Scores

Direct laryngoscopy is a routine procedure conducted to visualize the larynx (voice box), to access, evaluate and treat voice problems. Usually, the laryngoscope is placed through the mouth and the larynx is exposed under general anesthesia without difficulty. Laryngeal surgeries with the help of an operating microscope (Microlaryngoscopy / MLS) are then conducted to remove

TNM Staging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (AJCC 8)

Malignancies arising in nasopharynx / nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have different natural behavior and therapeutic consideration than other head and neck cancers. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma also has a very skewed geographic and ethnic distribution, with 80% of the global burden in Asian countries.

Anatomy and Physiology of Nasopharynx

The nasopharynx is an air-containing cavity at the back of the nose, which occupies the uppermost extent of the aerodigestive tract. It’s like a small cuboidal box about two to three centimeters front to back and about three to four centimeters top to bottom and side to side. The cavity is lined by pseudostratified ciliated

TNM Staging of Oropharyngeal Cancer – Updates in AJCC 8th Edition

The recently released 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, Head and Neck Section, introduces significant modifications from the prior 7th edition. In the head and neck domain, the most significant update creates a separate staging algorithm for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancer of the oropharynx, distinguishing it from oropharyngeal cancer (OPC)

Indications and Contraindications for total laryngectomy

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure mostly done for malignancies involving the larynx. In this surgery, the entire larynx (voice box) is removed by resecting the trachea and bringing out the lower stump as a respiratory opening in the anterior part of the neck (permanent tracheostomy) and thereby closing off the air passages to the

Laryngomalacia – clinical features, surgical and medical management

Laryngomalacia also called “discoordinate pharyngo-laryngomalacia” is the most common congenital lesion of the larynx (60-70%) and is the most common cause of congenital stridor in neonates and infants. The condition is characterized by partial or complete obstruction of supraglottic laryngeal structures on inspiration because of excess mucosa, abnormal and/or reduced laryngeal tone. The term laryngomalacia