Articles

“Articles” section provides a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of otolaryngology.

Shamblin classification of carotid body tumors

Carotid body tumour, also known as a chemodectoma or carotid body paraganglioma, are highly vascular tumors arising from the paraganglion cells of the carotid body. These tumors are located at the site of the carotid bifurcation. The treatment of choice in carotid body tumors is early surgical resection. Shamblin classification helps in predicting the prognosis and difficulties for

Calcific prevertebral tendinitis

Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis also is known as calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis or prevertebral calcific tendinitis is a self-limiting clinical condition due to calcification and inflammation of longus colli muscle and tendon. The condition was first described in 1964 by Hartley. Longus colli is a bilateral paired neck flexor muscle, located in the prevertebral area, along with

Revised Bethesda system for thyroid malignancies

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a corner stone investigation done in the evaluation of thyroid lesion. It is a simple, safe, quick and cost-effective outpatient procedure. FNAC has got a high degree of diagnostic accuracy (85-100%) and a high positive predictive value for malignant diseases (94%). The results are superior when FNAC is performed

Tubercle of Zuckerkandl

Zuckerkandl Tubercle (ZT) is the posterior projection of lateral lobes of the thyroid gland and is a common anatomical structure observed in 60-90% of cases. The tubercle was first described by Otto Madelung in 1867 as “posterior horn of the thyroid”. Later in 1902, Emil Zuckerkandl described it as ‘tuberculum’ or ‘processus posterior glandulae thyroideae’. Gilmour

Patulous eustachian tube

The patulous eustachian tube also known as patent Eustachian tube (PET) is a rare physiological disorder of the eustachian tube, in which a normally closed Eustachian tube stays open intermittently. PET was first described by Schwartze 1864 when he noted the movement of an atrophic tympanic membrane in synchronous with respiration. Jago described it fully

Diphtheria

Diphtheria is a life-threatening acute bacterial infectious condition caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The usual site of infection is the tonsils and oropharynx, but the disease can occur in nasal cavities, larynx or the skin also. History The disease was first described in the 5th century BC by Hippocrates and the bacterium was discovered by Edwin Klebs in

Treatment of allergic rhinitis in pregnancy

Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects 20-30% of women in the childbearing age group with an annually increasing prevalence. The classical clinical symptoms include sneezing, itching, nasal blockage, and nasal discharge. In patients who had allergic rhinitis before, the symptoms may worsen, improve or remain the same during pregnancy.  

Empty nose syndrome

Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a controversial clinical entity with no consensual definition. It is thought to be a postsurgical, iatrogenic (physician caused) phenomenon secondary to loss of nasal turbinate tissue. The condition was first described by Kerin & Moore in 1994. The exact incidence of this condition is unknown. Houser et al in their study