Its bleeding, bleeding and bleeding..

A 13-year-old male child presented to pediatric ENT unit, with chief complaints of left side nasal obstruction progressive and spontaneous nasal bleed, continuing nasal discharge since two months. intermittent episodes of headache which used to be relieved by analgesics. Past history No episodes of nasal bleeding before two months but intermittent nasal discharge. On examination […]

Temporal bone cancer staging systems

Staging of cancers is essential for patient counselling, treatment planning, predict treatment outcome and survival. Most commonly followed staging system for head and neck malignancies is the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM staging system) by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Because of the relative rarity of temporal bone cancers, a universally accepted temporal bone […]

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR) scoring systems

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) can be defined as chronic irritation of larynx caused by the abnormal retrograde flow of gastric contents into the upper airway, mostly due to upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction. Studies have found that upto 50% of laryngeal complaints that present in the otolaryngeal clinics are associated with LPR. LPR is suspected in cases […]

Does my child need tonsillectomy? – Indications for pediatric tonsillectomy

Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure performed with or without adenoidectomy that completely removes the tonsil, including its capsule, by dissecting the peritonsillar space between the tonsil capsule and the muscular wall. Tonsillectomy is the second-most common ambulatory surgical procedure (first being myringotomy with insertion of tubes) performed on children in the United States. In the […]

Laryngeal Exposure (Opening) Scores

Direct laryngoscopy is a routine procedure conducted to expose the larynx (voice box), to access and treat disorders causing voice dysfunction. Usually, the laryngoscope is placed through the mouth and the larynx is exposed under general anesthesia without difficulty. Laryngeal surgeries with help of an operating microscope (Microlaryngoscopy / MLS) is then conducted to remove […]

TNM Staging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (AJCC 8)

Nasopharynx is an air-containing cavity that occupies the uppermost extent of the aerodigestive tract, at the back of the nose which connects the nose to the mouth. Detailed anatomy and physiology of nasopharynx is out of scope of this article and is discussed separately. Malignancies arising in nasopharynx / nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have different natural behavior […]

Anatomy and Physiology of Nasopharynx

Nasopharynx is an air-containing cavity at the back of the nose, which occupies the uppermost extent of the aerodigestive tract. It’s like a small cuboidal box about two to three centimeters front to back and about three to four centimeters top to bottom and side to side. The cavity is lined by pseudo stratified ciliated […]

Best practices for Safe Nasal Irrigation

Nasal irrigation, (also termed as nasal rinsing, washout, douching or lavage) is a personal hygiene practice in which a person’s nasal cavity is washed with saline water to flush out debris and mucus from the nose and nasal sinuses. Nasal douching can be performed safely by people of all ages to support daily nasal hygiene. […]

NICE guidelines for Cochlear implantation in children and adults

According to the definition by American Academy of Family Physicians, Clinical practice guidelines are statements that include recommendations intended to optimize patient care. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is a non-departmental public body in England, that provides national guidance and advice to improve health and social care. On 7th March 2019, […]

Its all in the genes!

A 42 year old female was seen at an outside facility for progressive bilateral hearing loss and was referred to the otology clinic. On further enquiry, she gave history of chronic head ache, mild balance difficulties and past history of tonic-clonic seizures, treated with anti-epileptics for a year. Physical examination revealed an alert and oriented […]