Tracheoesophageal Prosthesis (TEP Speech)

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure, most commonly done in cancers of the larynx (voice box). In this procedure, the entire voice box is taken off and a permanent hole (tracheostomy/stoma) is created in the neck, through which the patient respires for his entire life. The indications, contraindications, surgical steps of laryngectomy are discussed separately […]

What’s the molecules telling?

65 year old male presented with non healing ulcer over the pinna of right ear for 5 months. A biopsy from the lesion was done and following is the report. Carcinoma with basaloid features and pigmentation – biopsy right pinna. Immuno staining: P63 – diffuse strong positivity. P40 – diffuse moderate positivity. BerEP4 – negative.

Its bleeding, bleeding and bleeding..

A 13-year-old male child presented to pediatric ENT unit, with chief complaints of left side nasal obstruction progressive and spontaneous nasal bleed, continuing nasal discharge since two months. intermittent episodes of headache which used to be relieved by analgesics. Past history No episodes of nasal bleeding before two months but intermittent nasal discharge. On examination […]

Temporal bone cancer staging systems

Staging of cancers is essential for patient counselling, treatment planning, predict treatment outcome and survival. Most commonly followed staging system for head and neck malignancies is the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM staging system) by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Because of the relative rarity of temporal bone cancers, a universally accepted temporal bone […]

TNM Staging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (AJCC 8)

Nasopharynx is an air-containing cavity that occupies the uppermost extent of the aerodigestive tract, at the back of the nose which connects the nose to the mouth. Detailed anatomy and physiology of nasopharynx is out of scope of this article and is discussed separately. Malignancies arising in nasopharynx / nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have different natural behavior […]

Anatomy and Physiology of Nasopharynx

Nasopharynx is an air-containing cavity at the back of the nose, which occupies the uppermost extent of the aerodigestive tract. It’s like a small cuboidal box about two to three centimeters front to back and about three to four centimeters top to bottom and side to side. The cavity is lined by pseudo stratified ciliated […]

Its all in the genes!

A 42 year old female was seen at an outside facility for progressive bilateral hearing loss and was referred to the otology clinic. On further enquiry, she gave history of chronic head ache, mild balance difficulties and past history of tonic-clonic seizures, treated with anti-epileptics for a year. Physical examination revealed an alert and oriented […]

TNM Staging of Oropharyngeal Cancer – Updates in AJCC 8th Edition

The recently released 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, Head and Neck Section, introduces significant modifications from the prior 7th edition. In the head and neck domain, the most significant update creates a separate staging algorithm for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancer of the oropharynx, distinguishing it from oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) […]

Indications and Contraindications for total laryngectomy

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure mostly done for malignancies involving the larynx. In this surgery, the entire larynx (voice box) is removed by resecting the trachea and bringing out the lower stump as a respiratory opening in the anterior part of the neck (permanent tracheostomy) and thereby closing off the air passages to the […]

I feel breathless!

42 year old male patient presented with a non healing ulcer on right lateral border of tongue for 3 months. A biopsy from the lesion proven to be well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. After metastatic workup, he underwent wide excision of the lesion with ipsilateral neck dissection. On post op follow up, patient presented with complaints […]