Head & Neck

Updated Guidelines for Management of Thyroid Disease in Adults

Thyroidectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure for the partial/complete removal of the thyroid gland. According to the United states data, over 100,000 thyroid operations are performed annually in the US alone. In order to have a uniform and evidence-based treatment for the management of thyroid disease, various guidelines are published by different surgical associations.

Important Triangles in Thyroid Surgery

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure involving removal of the thyroid glands. The procedure can be a hemi-thyroidectomy (partial removal) or can be a total thyroidectomy. The most important thing about thyroidectomy is the meticulous dissection needed for preserving the two nerves and bilateral parathyroid glands. These two nerves are the Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and

TNM Staging of Salivary Gland Cancers

Once a person is diagnosed with cancer, the next step before deciding on treatment options is a determination of the stage of the cancer. Staging of salivary gland cancers is an important step in evaluating prognosis and treatment options.  It helps determining how much is the cancer volume in the body, how serious the cancer

Inverted Papilloma – Clinical features, Diagnosis and Treatment

Inverted papilloma is a rare, benign but locally aggressive neoplasm that arises in the Schneiderian epithelium which lines the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. It is also known as Ringertz tumor, Schneiderian papilloma, Cylindroma and Benign papilloma of the nasal cavity. Inverted papilloma is the second most common benign tumor of the nose, after ossifying

Radiotherapy is better than TORS for Oropharyngeal Cancers – ORATOR Says

The mainstay of treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is chemoradiotherapy. The separation of oropharyngeal cancers into Human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and negative based on the etiology has shown that HPV positive cancers have a better prognosis and survival compared to HPV negative cancers. These young age HPV positive patients with prolonged survival are more

Role of Surgery in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancers

Prior to 1990, the mainstay of treatment for oropharyngeal cancers were surgeries. These large, invasive, open approaches like mandibulotomy, tongue pull through (described below), etc were associated with severe compromise in postoperative speech, swallow and airway function of the patient due to violation of pharyngeal mucosa. In addition, surgical management did not avoid the need

Lymph Node Levels of Head and Neck

There are around 800 lymph nodes in the human body and of these approximately 300 are in the head and neck region. Pathological conditions including tumors, infection and inflammation, etc of the head and neck region can cause abnormal enlargement of these cervical lymph nodes. The most common early spread of cancers arising in the

First bite syndrome – Clinical presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment

First bite syndrome is a clinical condition occurring as a complication of surgeries involving the infratemporal fossa, deep lobe of the parotid gland, parapharyngeal spaces and manipulation or ligature of the external carotid artery. Sometimes it can also be caused by a head and neck tumor itself arising in above locations. The condition is characterized

Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS)

Thyroid nodules are extremely common with a reported prevalence ranging between 8.2% and 64.6% in autopsies and 19% to 68% in adults on high-resolution ultrasound. Most of the time, thyroid nodules are detected accidentally when neck imaging is done for some other reasons. Mostly these nodules are benign; and even malignant nodules, particularly those smaller

ATA Risk Stratification for Differentiated Thyroid Cancers

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasing worldwide. Among the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) are the most frequent subtypes; other rare subtypes are medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). Though mortality from