Head & Neck

AJCC / TNM Staging of thyroid cancers

After the diagnosis of any cancer in the body, doctors stage cancer. Staging of thyroid cancers describes how big it is and whether it has spread to any other parts of the body. Staging also helps the doctors in deciding the treatment options, predicting the prognosis and treatment outcomes of cancer. Most of the cancers

Histopathological Variants of Papillary Carcinoma Thyroid

Papillary carcinoma thyroid (PTC) is the most common differentiated malignancy of thyroid gland. Depending on the different histopathological patterns, cell types and clinical features different variants of papillary carcinoma thyroid have been described. Knowing the variants of papillary carcinoma thyroid can help in predicting the aggressive biological course and prognosis of the disease. This, in

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancers

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT); also called Induction chemotherapy is a treatment option in cancer therapy, in which chemotherapy is given prior to the definitive treatment like surgery or radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cancer treatment can reduce the tumor volume, improve organ function prior to definitive treatment, permits more effective and less toxic local therapy. Giving NACT

Compartment Surgery in Oral Cancers

Main modality of treatment for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is surgery. Patients with advanced risk factors like margin positivity, perineural invasion, advanced disease, etc need postoperative radiotherapy. Significant advances in terms of oncologic treatment (lasers, robotics) and outcomes have happened in the last three decades. But irrespective of these advancements 5‐year overall survival hasn’t

Tracheoesophageal Prosthesis (TEP Speech)

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure, most commonly done in cancers of the larynx (voice box). In this procedure, the entire voice box is taken off and a permanent hole (tracheostomy/stoma) is created in the neck, through which the patient respires for his entire life. The indications, contraindications, surgical steps of laryngectomy are discussed separately

What’s the molecules telling?

A 65-year-old male presented with a nonhealing ulcer over the pinna of the right ear for 5 months. A biopsy from the lesion was done and the following is the report. Carcinoma with basaloid features and pigmentation – biopsy right pinna. Immunostaining: P63 – diffuse strong positivity. P40 – diffuse moderate positivity. BerEP4 – negative.

Its bleeding, bleeding and bleeding..

A 13-year-old male child presented to pediatric ENT unit, with chief complaints of left side nasal obstruction progressive and spontaneous nasal bleed, continuing nasal discharge since two months. intermittent episodes of headache which used to be relieved by analgesics. Past history No episodes of nasal bleeding before two months but intermittent nasal discharge. On examination

Temporal bone cancer staging systems

Staging of cancers is essential for patient counseling, treatment planning, predict treatment outcome and survival. Most commonly followed staging system for head and neck malignancies is the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM staging system) by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Because of the relative rarity of temporal bone cancers, a universally accepted temporal bone

TNM Staging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (AJCC 8)

Malignancies arising in nasopharynx / nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have different natural behavior and therapeutic consideration than other head and neck cancers. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma also has a very skewed geographic and ethnic distribution, with 80% of the global burden in Asian countries.

Anatomy and Physiology of Nasopharynx

The nasopharynx is an air-containing cavity at the back of the nose, which occupies the uppermost extent of the aerodigestive tract. It’s like a small cuboidal box about two to three centimeters front to back and about three to four centimeters top to bottom and side to side. The cavity is lined by pseudostratified ciliated