Head & Neck

TNM Staging of Lip and Oral Cavity cancers – AJCC 8th Edition

The recently released 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, Head and Neck Section, introduces significant modifications from the prior 7th edition. In this article, we discuss the changes in the 8th edition of AJCC staging manual for oral cavity cancers. T Staging For T staging of the oral cavity cancers, T4a

TNM AJCC Staging of Head & Neck Cancers

Staging of cancer refers to the classification of cancer by its anatomic disease extent, i.e, how large the tumor is, and if it has spread. This staging system of cancer helps to express the severity or extent of disease to estimate the prognosis of the disease provides useful information for treatment decision like planning, evaluation of results,

What’s new in AJCC 8th Edition, Head and Neck section?

The recently released 8th edition of the AJCC TNM Cancer Staging Manual, Head and Neck Section incorporates significant changes based on advances in our understanding of the etiology and certain histologic attributes of tumors. The most significant update in AJCC 8th edition, is the creation of a separate staging algorithm for high risk human papillomavirus-associated cancer

Staging systems for Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is an uncommon, slow-growing, benign but locally invasive vascular tumor arising from tissues in the sphenopalatine foramen inside the nasal cavity. JNAs are also reported to arise from the posterior aspect of the middle turbinate and rarely from other sites of the nasal cavity and in paranasal sinuses. JNA tumor was

Shamblin classification of carotid body tumors

Carotid body tumour, also known as a chemodectoma or carotid body paraganglioma, are highly vascular tumors arising from the paraganglion cells of the carotid body. These tumors are located at the site of the carotid bifurcation. The treatment of choice in carotid body tumors is early surgical resection. Shamblin classification helps in predicting the prognosis and difficulties for

Thyroidectomy is better than radioactive iodine therapy in preventing complications of hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a clinical condition where the thyroid gland is overactive and produces excess thyroid hormone. The most common causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves’ disease (autoimmune process), toxic nodular goiter and toxic adenoma. Hyperthyroidism affects approximately 2% of women and 0.2% of men with an estimated annual lifetime risk of 2-5%. The reported incidence of hyperthyroidism

Revised Bethesda system for thyroid malignancies

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a corner stone investigation done in the evaluation of thyroid lesion. It is a simple, safe, quick and cost-effective outpatient procedure. FNAC has got a high degree of diagnostic accuracy (85-100%) and a high positive predictive value for malignant diseases (94%). The results are superior when FNAC is performed

Tubercle of Zuckerkandl

Zuckerkandl Tubercle (ZT) is the posterior projection of lateral lobes of the thyroid gland and is a common anatomical structure observed in 60-90% of cases. The tubercle was first described by Otto Madelung in 1867 as “posterior horn of the thyroid”. Later in 1902, Emil Zuckerkandl described it as ‘tuberculum’ or ‘processus posterior glandulae thyroideae’. Gilmour

Seeing is believing

41-year-old male patient from Darjeeling, presented with complaints of painless, non-progressive swelling over the right side of the neck for the past 8 years with paroxysmal paraesthesia over the right ear for the past 8 months. He had a history of similar swelling on the left side for which he was evaluated and underwent surgical