Papillary carcinoma thyroid (PTC) is the most common differentiated malignancy of thyroid gland. Depending on the different histopathological patterns, cell types and clinical features different variants of papillary carcinoma thyroid have been described. Knowing the variants of papillary carcinoma thyroid can help in predicting the aggressive biological course and prognosis of the disease. This, in […]
Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) is a frequent congenital midline anomaly of the neck which usually manifests during the first decade of life. TDC is an epithelial lined tract that connects the tongue to the thyroid gland.
Hyperthyroidism is a clinical condition where the thyroid gland is overactive and produces excess thyroid hormone. The most common causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves’ disease (autoimmune process), toxic nodular goiter and toxic adenoma. Hyperthyroidism affects approximately 2% of women and 0.2% of men with an estimated annual life time risk of 2-5%. The reported incidence of hyperthyroidism […]
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is corner stone investigation done in the evaluation of thyroid lesion. It is a simple, safe, quick and cost effective outpatient procedure. FNAC has got a high degree of diagnostic accuracy (85-100%) and a high positive predictive value for malignant diseases (94%). The results are superior when FNAC is performed […]
Zuckerkandl Tubercle (ZT) is the posterior projection of lateral lobes of the thyroid gland and is a common anatomical structure observed in 60-90% of cases. The tubercle was first described by Otto Madelung in 1867 as “posterior horn of the thyroid”. Later in 1902, Emil Zuckerkandl, described it as ‘tuberculum’ or ‘processus posterior glandulae thyroideae’. Gilmour later described […]