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A 3-year-old boy presents with a midline anterior neck mass, just below the hyoid bone that moves with deglutition and tongue protrusion. Question: What is the most probable clinical diagnosis?

Thyroidectomy is better than radioactive iodine therapy in preventing complications of hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a clinical condition where the thyroid gland is overactive and produces excess thyroid hormone. The most common causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves’ disease (autoimmune process), toxic nodular goiter and toxic adenoma. Hyperthyroidism affects approximately 2% of women and 0.2% of men with an estimated annual life time risk of 2-5%. The reported incidence of hyperthyroidism […]

Revised Bethesda system for thyroid malignancies

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is corner stone investigation done in the evaluation of thyroid lesion. It is a simple, safe, quick and cost effective outpatient procedure. FNAC has got a high degree of diagnostic accuracy (85-100%) and a high positive predictive value for malignant diseases (94%). The results are superior when FNAC is performed […]

Tubercle of Zuckerkandl

Zuckerkandl Tubercle (ZT) is the posterior projection of lateral lobes of the thyroid gland and is a common anatomical structure observed in 60-90% of cases. The tubercle was first described by Otto Madelung in 1867 as “posterior horn of the thyroid”. Later in 1902, Emil Zuckerkandl, described it as ‘tuberculum’ or ‘processus posterior glandulae thyroideae’. Gilmour later described […]