Its bleeding, bleeding and bleeding..

A 13-year-old male child presented to pediatric ENT unit, with chief complaints of left side nasal obstruction progressive and spontaneous nasal bleed, continuing nasal discharge since two months. intermittent episodes of headache which used to be relieved by analgesics. Past history No episodes of nasal bleeding before two months but intermittent nasal discharge. On examination […]

Temporal bone cancer staging systems

Staging of cancers is essential for patient counselling, treatment planning, predict treatment outcome and survival. Most commonly followed staging system for head and neck malignancies is the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM staging system) by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Because of the relative rarity of temporal bone cancers, a universally accepted temporal bone […]

TNM Staging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (AJCC 8)

Nasopharynx is an air-containing cavity that occupies the uppermost extent of the aerodigestive tract, at the back of the nose which connects the nose to the mouth. Detailed anatomy and physiology of nasopharynx is out of scope of this article and is discussed separately. Malignancies arising in nasopharynx / nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have different natural behavior […]

Its all in the genes!

A 42 year old female was seen at an outside facility for progressive bilateral hearing loss and was referred to the otology clinic. On further enquiry, she gave history of chronic head ache, mild balance difficulties and past history of tonic-clonic seizures, treated with anti-epileptics for a year. Physical examination revealed an alert and oriented […]

TNM Staging of Oropharyngeal Cancer – Updates in AJCC 8th Edition

The recently released 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, Head and Neck Section, introduces significant modifications from the prior 7th edition. In the head and neck domain, the most significant update creates a separate staging algorithm for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancer of the oropharynx, distinguishing it from oropharyngeal cancer […]

Indications and Contraindications for total laryngectomy

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure mostly done for malignancies involving the larynx. In this surgery, the entire larynx (voice box) is removed by resecting the trachea and bringing out the lower stump as a respiratory opening in the anterior part of the neck (permanent tracheostomy) and thereby closing off the air passages to the […]

I feel breathless!

42 year old male patient presented with a non healing ulcer on right lateral border of tongue for 3 months. A biopsy from the lesion proven to be well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. After metastatic workup, he underwent wide excision of the lesion with ipsilateral neck dissection. On post op follow up, patient presented with complaints […]

Cell phone radiofrequency could enhance head and neck cancers – New study says

Developments in wireless communication technology over the last twenty years resulted in increasingly widespread use of mobile phones and wireless systems for communication purposes. This has led to concerns regarding potential adverse health effects, particularly of the central nervous system, of which the brain is the part most exposed to the radio frequency electromagnetic fields […]

Total Laryngectomy – Evolution, Workup, Surgical steps and Complications

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure in which the entire larynx is removed by resecting the trachea and bringing out the lower stump as a respiratory opening in the anterior part of the neck (permanent tracheostomy) and thereby closing off the air passages to the mouth and nose. The patient permanently loses his/her natural voice […]

Replacement of trachea with aortic grafts – a novel treatment for tracheal stenosis

Replacement of trachea after extensive resection still remains as a major challenge for the thoracic surgeons even after decades of intensive research. End to end anastomosis is difficult or almost not possible, when more than 5-6 cm of trachea is resected out. Several clinical solutions with skin, esophagus and bowel etc. have been proposed to tackle […]