Tumors of Head & Neck

Radiotherapy is better than TORS for Oropharyngeal Cancers – ORATOR Says

The mainstay of treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is chemoradiotherapy. The separation of oropharyngeal cancers into Human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and negative based on the etiology has shown that HPV positive cancers have a better prognosis and survival compared to HPV negative cancers. These young age HPV positive patients with prolonged survival are more

Role of Surgery in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancers

Prior to 1990, the mainstay of treatment for oropharyngeal cancers were surgeries. These large, invasive, open approaches like mandibulotomy, tongue pull through (described below), etc were associated with severe compromise in postoperative speech, swallow and airway function of the patient due to violation of pharyngeal mucosa. In addition, surgical management did not avoid the need

Lymph Node Levels of Head and Neck

There are around 800 lymph nodes in the human body and of these approximately 300 are in the head and neck region. Pathological conditions including tumors, infection and inflammation etc of head and neck region can cause abnormal enlargement of these cervical lymph nodes. The most common early spread of cancers arising in the head

First bite syndrome – Clinical presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment

First bite syndrome is a clinical condition occurring as a complication of surgeries involving the infratemporal fossa, deep lobe of the parotid gland, parapharyngeal spaces and manipulation or ligature of the external carotid artery. Sometimes it can also be caused by a head and neck tumor itself arising in above locations. The condition is characterized

Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS)

Thyroid nodules are extremely common with a reported prevalence ranging between 8.2% and 64.6% in autopsies and 19% to 68% in adults on high-resolution ultrasound. Most of the time, thyroid nodules are detected accidentally when neck imaging is done for some other reasons. Mostly these nodules are benign; and even malignant nodules, particularly those smaller

ATA Risk Stratification for Differentiated Thyroid Cancers

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasing worldwide. Among the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) are the most frequent subtypes; other rare subtypes are medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). Though mortality from

Histopathological Variants of Papillary Carcinoma Thyroid

Papillary carcinoma thyroid (PTC) is the most common differentiated malignancy of thyroid gland. Depending on the different histopathological patterns, cell types and clinical features different variants of papillary carcinoma thyroid have been described. Knowing the variants of papillary carcinoma thyroid can help in predicting the aggressive biological course and prognosis of the disease. This, in

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancers

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT); also called Induction chemotherapy is a treatment option in cancer therapy, in which chemotherapy is given prior to the definitive treatment like surgery or radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cancer treatment can reduce the tumor volume, improve organ function prior to definitive treatment, permits more effective and less toxic local therapy. Giving NACT

Compartment Surgery in Oral Cancers

Main modality of treatment for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is surgery. Patients with advanced risk factors like margin positivity, perineural invasion, advanced disease, etc need postoperative radiotherapy. Significant advances in terms of oncologic treatment (lasers, robotics) and outcomes have happened in the last three decades. But irrespective of these advancements 5‐year overall survival hasn’t

Tracheoesophageal Prosthesis (TEP Speech)

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure, most commonly done in cancers of the larynx (voice box). In this procedure, the entire voice box is taken off and a permanent hole (tracheostomy/stoma) is created in the neck, through which the patient respires for his entire life. The indications, contraindications, surgical steps of laryngectomy are discussed separately