Throat

Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) also known as juvenile-onset laryngeal papillomatosis/ laryngeal papillomatosis, is a rare airway disease characterized by the development of small, wart-like growths (papillomas) anywhere in the respiratory tract anywhere from the nasal vestibule to a terminal bronchiole. The papillomas predominantly arise at areas where a change in epithelium happens – these areas

Radiotherapy is better than TORS for Oropharyngeal Cancers – ORATOR Says

The mainstay of treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is chemoradiotherapy. The separation of oropharyngeal cancers into Human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and negative based on the etiology has shown that HPV positive cancers have a better prognosis and survival compared to HPV negative cancers. These young age HPV positive patients with prolonged survival are more

Role of Surgery in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Cancers

Prior to 1990, the mainstay of treatment for oropharyngeal cancers were surgeries. These large, invasive, open approaches like mandibulotomy, tongue pull through (described below), etc were associated with severe compromise in postoperative speech, swallow and airway function of the patient due to violation of pharyngeal mucosa. In addition, surgical management did not avoid the need

Subglottic Stenosis – Clinical Features and Treatment

Subglottic stenosis is a clinical condition occurring due to the narrowing of the subglottic lumen of the larynx (voice box) at the region of the cricoid cartilage. Based on the pathology, age at clinical presentation and the features, subglottic stenosis is of three types; congenital, acquired and idiopathic. Subglottic stenosis is considered to be congenital

Compartment Surgery in Oral Cancers

Main modality of treatment for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is surgery. Patients with advanced risk factors like margin positivity, perineural invasion, advanced disease, etc need postoperative radiotherapy. Significant advances in terms of oncologic treatment (lasers, robotics) and outcomes have happened in the last three decades. But irrespective of these advancements 5‐year overall survival hasn’t

Tracheoesophageal Prosthesis (TEP Speech)

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure, most commonly done in cancers of the larynx (voice box). In this procedure, the entire voice box is taken off and a permanent hole (tracheostomy/stoma) is created in the neck, through which the patient respires for his entire life. The indications, contraindications, surgical steps of laryngectomy are discussed separately

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Scoring Systems

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) can be defined as chronic irritation of larynx caused by the abnormal backflow of gastric contents into the upper airway, mostly due to upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction. Studies have found that up to 50% of laryngeal complaints that present in the otolaryngeal clinics are associated with LPR. LPR is suspected in cases

Does my child need tonsillectomy? – Indications for pediatric tonsillectomy

Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure performed with or without adenoidectomy that completely removes the tonsil, including its capsule, by dissecting the peritonsillar space between the tonsil capsule and the muscular wall. Tonsillectomy is the second-most common ambulatory surgical procedure (first being myringotomy with insertion of tubes) performed on children in the United States. In the

Laryngeal Exposure (Opening) Scores

Direct laryngoscopy is a routine procedure conducted to visualize the larynx (voice box), to access, evaluate and treat voice problems. Usually, the laryngoscope is placed through the mouth and the larynx is exposed under general anesthesia without difficulty. Laryngeal surgeries with the help of an operating microscope (Microlaryngoscopy / MLS) are then conducted to remove

TNM Staging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (AJCC 8)

Malignancies arising in nasopharynx / nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have different natural behavior and therapeutic consideration than other head and neck cancers. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma also has a very skewed geographic and ethnic distribution, with 80% of the global burden in Asian countries.