TNM Staging of Oropharyngeal Cancer – Updates in AJCC 8th Edition

The recently released 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, Head and Neck Section, introduces significant modifications from the prior 7th edition. In the head and neck domain, the most significant update creates a separate staging algorithm for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancer of the oropharynx, distinguishing it from oropharyngeal cancer […]

Indications and Contraindications for total laryngectomy

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure mostly done for malignancies involving the larynx. In this surgery, the entire larynx (voice box) is removed by resecting the trachea and bringing out the lower stump as a respiratory opening in the anterior part of the neck (permanent tracheostomy) and thereby closing off the air passages to the […]

Progressive loss of voice in a 2 year old female child

2 year old female child presented with complaints of progressive loss of voice for past 6 months. She had no history to suggestive voice abuse, foreign body inhalation, cough or catarrh. She had worsening difficulty in breathing with fast breathing, but no cyanosis, orthopnea or leg swelling. There was no complaints of feeding difficulty, fever or chronic […]

Intra oral swelling in a nine year old child

A 9 year old female patient presented with a chief complaint of swelling in the floor of mouth for past 3 months. The swelling was initially small in size & gradually increased in size to attain the present size. Child gives history of trauma to the mouth 3 months back. Swelling was not associated with any pain but child had difficulty in […]

Laryngomalacia – clinical features, surgical and medical management

Laryngomalacia also called as “discoordinate pharyngo-laryngomalacia” is the most common congenital lesion of larynx (60-70%) and is the most common cause of congenital stridor in neonates and infants. The condition is characterized by partial or complete obstruction of supraglottic laryngeal structures on inspiration because of excess mucosa, abnormal and/or reduced laryngeal tone. The term laryngomalacia […]

Resurgence of a disease of the past

6 year old boy from a rural area presented to pediatric casualty with history of throat pain, progressive swelling of neck and moderate grade fever for past 2 weeks associated with gradually worsening dysphagia for past 2 days. Antenatal history was uneventful, born at term by normal vaginal delivery, developmentally appropriate for age and has […]

Total Laryngectomy – Evolution, Workup, Surgical steps and Complications

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure in which the entire larynx is removed by resecting the trachea and bringing out the lower stump as a respiratory opening in the anterior part of the neck (permanent tracheostomy) and thereby closing off the air passages to the mouth and nose. The patient permanently loses his/her natural voice […]

Replacement of trachea with aortic grafts – a novel treatment for tracheal stenosis

Replacement of trachea after extensive resection still remains as a major challenge for the thoracic surgeons even after decades of intensive research. End to end anastomosis is difficult or almost not possible, when more than 5-6 cm of trachea is resected out. Several clinical solutions with skin, esophagus and bowel etc. have been proposed to tackle […]

Adenotonsillectomy lowers high blood pressure in children with OSA

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple snoring to complete obstruction of upper airways during sleep, which affects both children and adults. The most common cause of obstructive sleep apnea in children is chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and so adenotonsillectomy is considered as the first line treatment for OSA in children.

Clinical practice guidelines for tonsillectomy

Tonsillectomy is the second most commonly performed surgery in United States with more than 5,30,000 procedures performed on children younger than 15 years each year. Although tonsillectomy is a routine procedure performed by general and pediatric otolaryngologists, there is significant variation in preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative patient treatment among clinicians. In order to avoid such variations […]