6 year old boy from a rural area presented to pediatric casualty with history of throat pain, progressive swelling of neck and moderate grade fever for past 2 weeks associated with gradually worsening dysphagia for past 2 days. Antenatal history was uneventful, born at term by normal vaginal delivery, developmentally appropriate for age and has […]
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple snoring to complete obstruction of upper airways during sleep, which affects both children and adults. The most common cause of obstructive sleep apnea in children is chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and so adenotonsillectomy is considered as the first line treatment for OSA in children.
Tonsillectomy is the second most commonly performed surgery in United States with more than 5,30,000 procedures performed on children younger than 15 years each year. Although tonsillectomy is a routine procedure performed by general and pediatric otolaryngologists, there is significant variation in preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative patient treatment among clinicians. In order to avoid such variations […]
Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VI) is the inability to temporarily close the connection between nasopharynx and oropharynx, due to an anatomical dysfunction in soft palate (velum), lateral pharyngeal wall or posterior pharyngeal wall. This can be due to insufficient tissue to accomplish closure, or due to some kind of mechanical interference with closure. An effective sealing between nasopharynx […]
Bladder control in children usually occurs by the age of 5 years. Nocturnal enuresis (NE)or bed wetting, is the involuntary urination during sleep, in absence of physical disease in a child older than 5 years. Nocturnal enuresis affects children of all racial groups. The estimated prevalence rate is 8% to 20% for 5 year old children and 1.5% to 10% […]
Diphtheria is a life threatening acute bacterial infectious condition caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The usual site of infection is the tonsils and oropharynx, but the disease can occur in nasal cavities, larynx or the skin also. History The disease was first described in the 5th century BC by Hippocrates and the bacterium was discovered by Edwin Klebs in […]
5 year old male child presented with history of recurrent sore throat, fever, mouth breathing for the past 3 years. Parent also gives history of sleep disordered breathing including witnessed apneic episodes. History of nocturnal enuresis also present. On examination Adenoid facies present. Mouth breathing present. Oral cavity: Crowded tooth Oropharynx: Grade III tonsils Anterior rhinoscopy: […]