Larynx

Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) also known as juvenile-onset laryngeal papillomatosis/ laryngeal papillomatosis, is a rare airway disease characterized by the development of small, wart-like growths (papillomas) anywhere in the respiratory tract anywhere from the nasal vestibule to a terminal bronchiole. The papillomas predominantly arise at areas where a change in epithelium happens – these areas

Subglottic Stenosis – Clinical Features and Treatment

Subglottic stenosis is a clinical condition occurring due to the narrowing of the subglottic lumen of the larynx (voice box) at the region of the cricoid cartilage. Based on the pathology, age at clinical presentation and the features, subglottic stenosis is of three types; congenital, acquired and idiopathic. Subglottic stenosis is considered to be congenital

Tracheoesophageal Prosthesis (TEP Speech)

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure, most commonly done in cancers of the larynx (voice box). In this procedure, the entire voice box is taken off and a permanent hole (tracheostomy/stoma) is created in the neck, through which the patient respires for his entire life. The indications, contraindications, surgical steps of laryngectomy are discussed separately

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Scoring Systems

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) can be defined as chronic irritation of larynx caused by the abnormal backflow of gastric contents into the upper airway, mostly due to upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction. Studies have found that up to 50% of laryngeal complaints that present in the otolaryngeal clinics are associated with LPR. LPR is suspected in cases

Laryngeal Exposure (Opening) Scores

Direct laryngoscopy is a routine procedure conducted to visualize the larynx (voice box), to access, evaluate and treat voice problems. Usually, the laryngoscope is placed through the mouth and the larynx is exposed under general anesthesia without difficulty. Laryngeal surgeries with the help of an operating microscope (Microlaryngoscopy / MLS) are then conducted to remove

Indications and Contraindications for total laryngectomy

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure mostly done for malignancies involving the larynx. In this surgery, the entire larynx (voice box) is removed by resecting the trachea and bringing out the lower stump as a respiratory opening in the anterior part of the neck (permanent tracheostomy) and thereby closing off the air passages to the

Progressive loss of voice in a 2 year old female child

A 2-year-old female child presented with complaints of progressive loss of voice for the past 6 months. She had no history to suggestive voice abuse, foreign body inhalation, cough or catarrh. She had worsening difficulty in breathing with fast breathing, but no cyanosis, orthopnea or leg swelling. There were no complaints of feeding difficulty, fever

Laryngomalacia – clinical features, surgical and medical management

Laryngomalacia also called “discoordinate pharyngo-laryngomalacia” is the most common congenital lesion of the larynx (60-70%) and is the most common cause of congenital stridor in neonates and infants. The condition is characterized by partial or complete obstruction of supraglottic laryngeal structures on inspiration because of excess mucosa, abnormal and/or reduced laryngeal tone. The term laryngomalacia

Total Laryngectomy – Evolution, Workup, Surgical steps and Complications

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure in which the entire larynx is removed by resecting the trachea and bringing out the lower stump as a respiratory opening in the anterior part of the neck (permanent tracheostomy) and thereby closing off the air passages to the mouth and nose. The patient permanently loses his/her natural voice