Anatomy and Physiology of Nasopharynx

The nasopharynx is an air-containing cavity at the back of the nose, which occupies the uppermost extent of the aerodigestive tract. It’s like a small cuboidal box about two to three centimeters front to back and about three to four centimeters top to bottom and side to side. The cavity is lined by pseudostratified ciliated […]

Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VI) is the inability to temporarily close the connection between nasopharynx and oropharynx, due to an anatomical dysfunction in soft palate (velum), lateral pharyngeal wall or posterior pharyngeal wall. This can be due to insufficient tissue to accomplish closure, or due to some kind of mechanical interference with closure. An effective sealing between nasopharynx […]

Carotid Body Tumors / Chemodectoma

Carotid body tumour, also known as carotid body paraganglioma or chemodectoma, is a highly vascular tumour, arising from chromaffin (paraganglion) cells of the extra-adrenal tissues in the carotid body.

Calcific prevertebral tendinitis

Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis also known as calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis or prevertebral calcific tendinitis is a self limiting clinical condition due to calcification and inflammation of longus colli muscle and tendon. The condition was first described in 1964 by Hartley. Longus colli is a bilateral paired neck flexor muscle, located in the prevertebral area, along with the longus capitis, […]


Diphtheria is a life threatening acute bacterial infectious condition caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The usual site of infection is the tonsils and oropharynx, but the disease can occur in nasal cavities, larynx or the skin also. History The disease was first described in the 5th century BC by Hippocrates and the bacterium was discovered by Edwin Klebs in […]

Seeing is believing

41 year old male patient from Darjeeling, presented with complaints of painless, non-progressive swelling over the right side of neck for past 8 years with paroxysmal paraesthesia over right ear for past 8 months. No history of voice change, difficulty in swallowing, nasal regurgitation of foods. No history of ptosis, drooping of shoulders. No history of […]