Tracheoesophageal Prosthesis (TEP Speech)

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure, most commonly done in cancers of the larynx (voice box). In this procedure, the entire voice box is taken off and a permanent hole (tracheostomy/stoma) is created in the neck, through which the patient respires for his entire life. The indications, contraindications, surgical steps of laryngectomy are discussed separately

What’s the molecules telling?

A 65-year-old male presented with a nonhealing ulcer over the pinna of the right ear for 5 months. A biopsy from the lesion was done and the following is the report. Carcinoma with basaloid features and pigmentation – biopsy right pinna. Immunostaining: P63 – diffuse strong positivity. P40 – diffuse moderate positivity. BerEP4 – negative.

Its bleeding, bleeding and bleeding..

A 13-year-old male child presented to pediatric ENT unit, with chief complaints of left side nasal obstruction progressive and spontaneous nasal bleed, continuing nasal discharge since two months. intermittent episodes of headache which used to be relieved by analgesics. Past history No episodes of nasal bleeding before two months but intermittent nasal discharge. On examination

Temporal bone cancer staging systems

Staging of cancers is essential for patient counseling, treatment planning, predict treatment outcome and survival. Most commonly followed staging system for head and neck malignancies is the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM staging system) by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Because of the relative rarity of temporal bone cancers, a universally accepted temporal bone

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Scoring Systems

Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) can be defined as chronic irritation of larynx caused by the abnormal backflow of gastric contents into the upper airway, mostly due to upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction. Studies have found that up to 50% of laryngeal complaints that present in the otolaryngeal clinics are associated with LPR. LPR is suspected in cases

Does my child need tonsillectomy? – Indications for pediatric tonsillectomy

Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure performed with or without adenoidectomy that completely removes the tonsil, including its capsule, by dissecting the peritonsillar space between the tonsil capsule and the muscular wall. Tonsillectomy is the second-most common ambulatory surgical procedure (first being myringotomy with insertion of tubes) performed on children in the United States. In the

Laryngeal Exposure (Opening) Scores

Direct laryngoscopy is a routine procedure conducted to visualize the larynx (voice box), to access, evaluate and treat voice problems. Usually, the laryngoscope is placed through the mouth and the larynx is exposed under general anesthesia without difficulty. Laryngeal surgeries with the help of an operating microscope (Microlaryngoscopy / MLS) are then conducted to remove

TNM Staging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (AJCC 8)

Malignancies arising in nasopharynx / nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have different natural behavior and therapeutic consideration than other head and neck cancers. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma also has a very skewed geographic and ethnic distribution, with 80% of the global burden in Asian countries.

Anatomy and Physiology of Nasopharynx

The nasopharynx is an air-containing cavity at the back of the nose, which occupies the uppermost extent of the aerodigestive tract. It’s like a small cuboidal box about two to three centimeters front to back and about three to four centimeters top to bottom and side to side. The cavity is lined by pseudostratified ciliated

Best practices for Safe Nasal Irrigation

Nasal irrigation, (also termed as nasal rinsing, washout, douching or lavage) is a personal hygiene practice in which a person’s nasal cavity is washed with saline water to flush out debris and mucus from the nose and nasal sinuses. Nasal douching can be performed safely by people of all ages to support daily nasal hygiene.