Carotid Body Tumors / Chemodectoma

Carotid body tumour, also known as carotid body paraganglioma or chemodectoma, is a highly vascular tumour, arising from chromaffin (paraganglion) cells of the extra-adrenal tissues in the carotid body.

Shamblin classification of carotid body tumors

Carotid body tumour, also known as a chemodectoma or carotid body paraganglioma, are highly vascular tumors arising from the paraganglion cells of the carotid body. These tumors are located at the site of carotid bifurcation. The treatment of choice in carotid body tumors is early surgical resection. Shamblin classification helps in predicting the prognosis and difficulties for surgical resection.

Adenotonsillectomy can improve bedwetting in children with obstructive sleep apnea

Bladder control in children usually occurs by the age of 5 years. Nocturnal enuresis (NE)or bed wetting, is the involuntary urination during sleep, in absence of physical disease in a child older than 5 years. Nocturnal enuresis affects children of all racial groups. The estimated prevalence rate is 8% to 20% for 5 year old children and 1.5% to 10% […]

Calcific prevertebral tendinitis

Acute calcific prevertebral tendinitis also known as calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis or prevertebral calcific tendinitis is a self limiting clinical condition due to calcification and inflammation of longus colli muscle and tendon. The condition was first described in 1964 by Hartley. Longus colli is a bilateral paired neck flexor muscle, located in the prevertebral area, along with the longus capitis, […]

Thyroidectomy is better than radioactive iodine therapy in preventing complications of hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a clinical condition where the thyroid gland is overactive and produces excess thyroid hormone. The most common causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves’ disease (autoimmune process), toxic nodular goiter and toxic adenoma. Hyperthyroidism affects approximately 2% of women and 0.2% of men with an estimated annual life time risk of 2-5%. The reported incidence of hyperthyroidism […]

Revised Bethesda system for thyroid malignancies

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is corner stone investigation done in the evaluation of thyroid lesion. It is a simple, safe, quick and cost effective outpatient procedure. FNAC has got a high degree of diagnostic accuracy (85-100%) and a high positive predictive value for malignant diseases (94%). The results are superior when FNAC is performed […]

CT Scan, Endoscopy or MRI – Which is the best investigation in sinusitis?

Sinusitis is one of the commonest causes of patients visit to the oto-rhino-laryngologist (ENT). Making a diagnosis of sinusitis can be challenging as it is not always clear if it is caused by a bacterial infection or by a common cold. To overcome these limitations, various investigation modalities, like endoscopy, CT scan or MRI) are available […]

Tubercle of Zuckerkandl

Zuckerkandl Tubercle (ZT) is the posterior projection of lateral lobes of the thyroid gland and is a common anatomical structure observed in 60-90% of cases. The tubercle was first described by Otto Madelung in 1867 as “posterior horn of the thyroid”. Later in 1902, Emil Zuckerkandl, described it as ‘tuberculum’ or ‘processus posterior glandulae thyroideae’. Gilmour later described […]

Opto-acoustic Cochlear implant to hear with light pulses

Cochlear implants are electronic prosthetic devices used in adults and children with sensory neural hearing loss, who are not benefited by the use of conventional hearing aids. They bypasses the functions of damaged hair cells inside the inner ear and directly stimulates the spiral ganglion of cochlear nerve (nerve of hearing).

Patulous eustachian tube

Patulous eustachian tube also known as patent Eustachian tube (PET) is a rare physiological disorder of the eustachian tube, in which a normally closed Eustachian tube stays open intermittently. PET was first described by Schwartze 1864 when he noted the movement of an atrophic tympanic membrane in synchronous with respiration. Jago described it fully in […]