Updated Guidelines for Management of Thyroid Disease in Adults

Thyroidectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure for the partial/complete removal of the thyroid gland. According to the United states data, over 100,000 thyroid operations are performed annually in the US alone. In order to have a uniform and evidence-based treatment for the management of thyroid disease, various guidelines are published by different surgical associations.

Important Triangles in Thyroid Surgery

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure involving removal of the thyroid glands. The procedure can be a hemi-thyroidectomy (partial removal) or can be a total thyroidectomy. The most important thing about thyroidectomy is the meticulous dissection needed for preserving the two nerves and bilateral parathyroid glands. These two nerves are the Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and

Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS)

Thyroid nodules are extremely common with a reported prevalence ranging between 8.2% and 64.6% in autopsies and 19% to 68% in adults on high-resolution ultrasound. Most of the time, thyroid nodules are detected accidentally when neck imaging is done for some other reasons. Mostly these nodules are benign; and even malignant nodules, particularly those smaller

ATA Risk Stratification for Differentiated Thyroid Cancers

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasing worldwide. Among the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) are the most frequent subtypes; other rare subtypes are medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). Though mortality from

AJCC / TNM Staging of thyroid cancers

After the diagnosis of any cancer in the body, doctors stage cancer. Staging of thyroid cancers describes how big it is and whether it has spread to any other parts of the body. Staging also helps the doctors in deciding the treatment options, predicting the prognosis and treatment outcomes of cancer. Most of the cancers

Histopathological Variants of Papillary Carcinoma Thyroid

Papillary carcinoma thyroid (PTC) is the most common differentiated malignancy of thyroid gland. Depending on the different histopathological patterns, cell types and clinical features different variants of papillary carcinoma thyroid have been described. Knowing the variants of papillary carcinoma thyroid can help in predicting the aggressive biological course and prognosis of the disease. This, in

Thyroidectomy is better than radioactive iodine therapy in preventing complications of hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is a clinical condition where the thyroid gland is overactive and produces excess thyroid hormone. The most common causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves’ disease (autoimmune process), toxic nodular goiter and toxic adenoma. Hyperthyroidism affects approximately 2% of women and 0.2% of men with an estimated annual lifetime risk of 2-5%. The reported incidence of hyperthyroidism

Revised Bethesda system for thyroid malignancies

Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a corner stone investigation done in the evaluation of thyroid lesion. It is a simple, safe, quick and cost-effective outpatient procedure. FNAC has got a high degree of diagnostic accuracy (85-100%) and a high positive predictive value for malignant diseases (94%). The results are superior when FNAC is performed

Tubercle of Zuckerkandl

Zuckerkandl Tubercle (ZT) is the posterior projection of lateral lobes of the thyroid gland and is a common anatomical structure observed in 60-90% of cases. The tubercle was first described by Otto Madelung in 1867 as “posterior horn of the thyroid”. Later in 1902, Emil Zuckerkandl described it as ‘tuberculum’ or ‘processus posterior glandulae thyroideae’. Gilmour