tumors

TNM Staging of Salivary Gland Cancers

Once a person is diagnosed with cancer, the next step before deciding on treatment options is a determination of the stage of the cancer. Staging of salivary gland cancers is an important step in evaluating prognosis and treatment options.  It helps determining how much is the cancer volume in the body, how serious the cancer

Classification of Neck Dissection

Neck dissection (ND) is a complex surgical operation involving the removal of potential or proven metastases to cervical lymph nodes. The aim of the procedure is to remove lymph nodes from one side of the neck into which cancer cells may have migrated. Prior to reading about the classification of neck dissections, knowledge about the

Radiotherapy is better than TORS for Oropharyngeal Cancers – ORATOR Says

The mainstay of treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is chemoradiotherapy. The separation of oropharyngeal cancers into Human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and negative based on the etiology has shown that HPV positive cancers have a better prognosis and survival compared to HPV negative cancers. These young age HPV positive patients with prolonged survival are more

AJCC / TNM Staging of thyroid cancers

After the diagnosis of any cancer in the body, doctors stage cancer. Staging of thyroid cancers describes how big it is and whether it has spread to any other parts of the body. Staging also helps the doctors in deciding the treatment options, predicting the prognosis and treatment outcomes of cancer. Most of the cancers

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancers

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT); also called Induction chemotherapy is a treatment option in cancer therapy, in which chemotherapy is given prior to the definitive treatment like surgery or radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cancer treatment can reduce the tumor volume, improve organ function prior to definitive treatment, permits more effective and less toxic local therapy. Giving NACT

Compartment Surgery in Oral Cancers

Main modality of treatment for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is surgery. Patients with advanced risk factors like margin positivity, perineural invasion, advanced disease, etc need postoperative radiotherapy. Significant advances in terms of oncologic treatment (lasers, robotics) and outcomes have happened in the last three decades. But irrespective of these advancements 5‐year overall survival hasn’t

Tracheoesophageal Prosthesis (TEP Speech)

Total laryngectomy is a surgical procedure, most commonly done in cancers of the larynx (voice box). In this procedure, the entire voice box is taken off and a permanent hole (tracheostomy/stoma) is created in the neck, through which the patient respires for his entire life. The indications, contraindications, surgical steps of laryngectomy are discussed separately

What’s the molecules telling?

A 65-year-old male presented with a nonhealing ulcer over the pinna of the right ear for 5 months. A biopsy from the lesion was done and the following is the report. Carcinoma with basaloid features and pigmentation – biopsy right pinna. Immunostaining: P63 – diffuse strong positivity. P40 – diffuse moderate positivity. BerEP4 – negative.

Temporal bone cancer staging systems

Staging of cancers is essential for patient counseling, treatment planning, predict treatment outcome and survival. Most commonly followed staging system for head and neck malignancies is the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM staging system) by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Because of the relative rarity of temporal bone cancers, a universally accepted temporal bone

TNM Staging of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (AJCC 8)

Malignancies arising in nasopharynx / nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have different natural behavior and therapeutic consideration than other head and neck cancers. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma also has a very skewed geographic and ethnic distribution, with 80% of the global burden in Asian countries.